The European powers had reconciled after the tumultuous Napoleonic wars at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. A principle of “Balance of Powers” was implemented, and “Concert of Europe” was embraced by all European monarchs. Every territorial expansion and annexation were to be agreed upon by the five signatories (Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France) to the body of treaties. Though no representative of the Ottoman Sultan attended the Congress, it was understood that no annexation or invasion of the Ottoman lands was to be undertaken by any European power without the consent of other co-signatories. It was a resolution for peace after a quarter century of French revolutionary havoc.
Then the Greek revolt happened, a Russian patronized and funded insurrection. However, the Ottoman doubled down on the rebels and defeated them savagely, all the while committing a series of vicious atrocities against the Greek people.
Russia beseeched the European powers to join forces and help the Greeks, but the rest of the European powers were justified in their fear of Russian intentions. After all, it was the intent of Empress Catherine II (Empress of Russia 1762 – 1796) to recreate the Byzantine Empire, via her ambitious Greek plan, establishing a Greek state of Orthodox Christians, occupying the same territorial and political space as that of the old Byzantine Empire. A country under the implicit Russian control, politically and spiritually.
The European governments ignored the Russian calls, but European volunteers, inspired by religious and romantic revolutionary spirit flocked to Greece to join forces with the rebels. With the Ottoman control over the Greek dominion struggling, the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, asked for help from his powerful governor of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha. On hopes of advancing his own benefits, the Pasha of Egypt sent his eldest son, Ibrahim, an inspired military commander, disciplined and vicious in his own right. The Egyptian forces, under Ibrahim, quashed the Greek rebellion completely, committing farther atrocities in the wake of their suppression, killing thousands, burning villages and intending to ship thousands of Greeks to Egypt as slaves.Continue reading “The Greek Plan. The Sick Man of Europe. Russian Specter”